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"Η Συγχώρηση αυτού που σε έβλαψε, σε περιφρόνησε, σε διέβαλλε, σε επιβουλεύτηκε, σε εχθρεύτηκε (αδικώντας σε) καθ’ οιονδήποτε τρόπο είναι μια ανώτερη ηθική πράξη. Εξίσου υψηλή ηθική αξία έχει το να ζητήσει κάποιος ειλικρινή Συγχώρηση για τα δεινά που προκάλεσε (με τις πράξεις ή/και με την απραξία του) σε κάποιον άλλον. Με μια ΔΙΑΦΟΡΑ. Το δεύτερο έχει αξία ΜΟΝΟΝ όταν απευθύνεται σε κάποιον κατώτερο από πλευράς κοινωνικής/πολιτικής/οικονομικής ισχύος. Τι αξία μπορεί να έχει άραγε μια «Συγγνώμη» που απευθύνεται σε κάποιον «ανώτερο κοινωνικά» (και «ισχυρότερο») όπου εάν τολμήσεις να μην ζητήσεις «συγγνώμη» (συνοδευόμενο δε με πολλαπλάσια «αποκατάσταση» ζημιών) γι’ αυτά που του έκανες όταν ήταν «κατώτερος» μπορεί να σε συντρίψει «ανταποδοτικά» αλλά και «προς παραδειγματισμό» κάθε άλλου (κατώτερου αλλά και «ανώτερου») που θα αποτολμήσει τα ίδια;"

Πέμπτη, 5 Μαρτίου 2015

Αυτοσχέδιοι Εκρηκτικοί Μηχανισμοί (τι είναι, πως λειτουργούν, συνδυασμοί, φονικότητα - ιστορικό χρήσης τους σε διάφορα "Μέτωπα" και Μ.Ανατολή)


What is an IED?


IED is the abbreviation for an Improvised Explosive Device. An IED is usually a makeshift bomb that can be extremely destructive when detonated.

There are many different variations of the IED and they are sometimes used as a distracting tactic before another form of attack. These types of bombs are often used in guerrilla warfare.


The explosive capabilities of the IED can be quite different.
Some contain lethal chemicals and some contain metal parts such as nails and ball bearings.

An IED requires a detonator and also a system that will trigger the electrical charge to set off the bomb. Due to its makeshift nature, the type of explosives used can be mixed.

They can be made from military explosives or they can be homemade.

The explosive material can be sourced from anything that will maim or kill.

Many of these devices contain toxic chemicals or radioactive material.

They can be used to kill people or blow up vehicles in roadside attacks.


The IED can be extremely risky when made by an inexperienced person. Detonators can fail to work and people who have been making the bombs have been known to blow themselves up. But the IED can be a source of much damage and many innocent lives have been lost because of them.

The IED has been used in many wars.

It was a popular method of destruction in Northern Ireland. The Provisional Irish Republican Army would use these types of bombs for roadside attacks. The worst attack resulted in the loss of 18 lives due to only two of these bombs.

They were also widely used in the Vietnam War and in Chechnya.

The size of the IEDs mean that they can be placed almost anywhere. They can be hidden in small boxes, bags and under tables. Many warnings in underground and subway stations and on public transportation around the world exist, advising the public not to touch any bags or boxes that have been left unattended. IEDs have also been used by civilian protesters in pub bombings in London.


The IED has been widely used by Iraqi insurgents in the war in Iraq. They have been the cause of a third of all American deaths during the war. In 2005, during one ten month period, 302 American soldiers were killed due to IED devices.


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2nd)

What are Improvised Explosive Devices?


Improvised explosive devices (IED) are small homemade bombs, made famous recently by the occupation of Iraq by the United States, used to kill soldiers and damage vehicles.

In contrast to land-mines, improvised explosive devices are usually manufactured from off-the-shelf components using simple tools and commonly triggered using a mobile phone.

The use of improvised explosive devices may be regarded as a form of guerilla warfare, employed by fighters of a poor nation being invaded or occupied by a more technologically advanced force.

Improvised explosive devices are responsible for approximately one third of U.S. military deaths in Iraq, a figure which has remained relatively constant with the continued occupation.


The appeal of improvised explosive devices lies in the fact that they can be made from just about anything that explodes coupled with a remotely activated detonator.

They are especially useful in urban areas, where it is difficult for the occupying forces to distinguish between innocent civilians and enemy combatants, and the perpetrator can escape into a crowd in the confusion of the explosion.

Improvised explosive devices may be cleverly concealed under garbage or positioned in unsuspected places like behind trees or signs.

In the chaos of an invasion, a defeated army generally leaves behind many tons of explosive material to be looted by insurgents. Though these insurgents might lack the necessary technology to make use of the explosives as originally intended, improvised explosive devices can be made from nearly anything.

A conventional high explosive payload may be accompanied by toxic chemicals or biological weaponry such as anthrax, adding to the psychological fear factor.


With the right knowledge and tools, high explosive can be formed into a shaped charge, like the type used in rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs), which creates a lethal plasma jet that no current armor can stop.

As of 2006, the U.S. military is pumping many millions of dollars into emergency research programs for finding effective countermeasures to these insidious devices.


IEDs have been used by the guerilla forces of Spain during their civil war, against the Nazis by Belarusians during WWII, and by the radical Islamist militias in Iraq and Afghanistan following the U.S. military invasions there.

It is known that foreign specialists sometimes arrive in these hotspots to assist the natives in constructing IEDs, compounding the severity of risk in the area.

Perhaps with the right detection or neutralization mechanisms, improvised explosive devices will no longer pose a risk, but today they result in the death or maiming of many unfortunate soldiers.


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